Tag Archives: africa
By Khy Sovuthy and Simon Henderson, The Cambodia Daily
The General Department of Customs held a press conference Thursday to provide the first update since May 12 on the investigation into Cambodia’s biggest ever seizure of illegal ivory. But customs officials did not mention whether the investigation had identified any person or persons responsible for the smuggled ivory, and declined to respond to questions on the identity of the smugglers.
“After investigating this case we have discovered that the 3,008 kg of ivory was transported from Kenya in Africa,” Kin Ly, the head of the Sihanoukville port’s customs and excise department, told reporters.
He explained that port authorities were alerted about the containers by the regional intelligence liaison office of the Customs Enforcement Network, a global intelligence service monitoring shipping cargo.
The containers were supposed to be carrying beans from Malaysia, but a scan after their arrival at Sihanoukville revealed a cargo of more than 500 elephant tusks.
Most of the elephant tusks smuggled through Southeast Asia are bound for Vietnam and China, which have lucrative black markets for ivory, and Bun Chiv, deputy chief of the port’s customs office, said Thursday that the final destination of the Kenyan ivory was almost certainly not Cambodia.
“Cambodia was not the destination country for this ivory,” he said.
Neither he nor Mr. Ly would answer questions regarding the shipping company that consigned the containers, Olair Worldwide Logistics, which has two office listings in Phnom Penh and one in Sihanoukville.
The company is registered with the Ministry of Commerce as having three shareholders: Seang Sokhorn, Eang Chantha and Huy Soly.
Neither the company nor the shareholders could be reached Thursday.
Richard Schiffman, New Scientist
AT THE headquarters of the Mara Elephant Project, Marc Goss contemplates a jumble of squiggly lines superimposed on a Google Earth map. Each line represents the recent movements of a GPS-collared elephant in the Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya. Generally, the animals move too slowly to notice.
Occasionally, however, Goss sees what he calls “a streak” – when one of the lines suddenly lurches forward. It means the animal is being chased by poachers. If the streak stops cold, Goss surmises that another elephant has just been killed.
An unsustainable four elephants are killed in Africa every hour for the ivory in their tusks. But while impoverished locals are enlisted to pull the triggers, it is highly organised transnational crime syndicates and militias that run the poaching and reap the lion’s share of the profits, fuelling terrorism and increasingly war.
That’s the conclusion of a joint report by the conservation group Born Free USA and C4ADS, a non-profit organisation that conducts data-driven analysis of security and conflict issues.
Varun Vira, a senior analyst at C4ADS and one of the authors of the report, says it is the first study to look at the problem through the lens of conflict and national security rather than conservation. The report, titled Ivory’s Curse, draws on publicly available government data, news reports and interviews with government officials and conservationists.
It paints a bleak picture of a slaughter which is disastrous not just for elephants, but for the stability of African nations, and claims that blood money from ivory has helped to bankroll almost every conflict in Africa in recent decades. “The modern ivory trade was built on war,” says Vira.
In 2013, roughly 400 tonnes of ivory was trafficked, representing the tusks of 50,000 elephants – a billion dollar a year business. The price of ivory inChina, which is by far the largest market, has sky-rocketed from $6 a kilo in 1976 to $3000 today – far more than most Africans earn in a year (see diagram).
The report identified seven regions where conflict and ivory trade are deeply connected, and shows that much of the poaching takes place across borders(see map). For instance, the report builds on previous findings that Somali terror group al-Shabaab funds itself with money from tusks poached in northern Kenya, adding that the ongoing civil war in the Central African Republic (CAR) is being partly funded by ivory. Meanwhile, Nigeria’s Boko Haram is targeting elephants in Cameroon.
In Sudan, government-allied militias complicit in the Darfur genocide fund their operations by poaching elephants in Chad, Cameroon, the CAR and northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. South Sudan, which boasted 130,000 elephants 25 years ago, is down to just 5000 animals today due to poaching by both sides in the recent conflict.
Some populations have been hit particularly hard and may never recover. The report predicts that African forest elephants could become extinct in the Congo basin within two decades. In addition to political instability, much of the blame lies with the proliferation of Chinese mining and timber operations in the area. These build roads through the rainforest that give poachers access to previously remote areas.
There are a few bright spots. Relatively wealthy Namibia and South Africa have so far kept elephant poaching largely in check through political stability, aggressive patrolling and community-based conservation. Remoteness also helps. Elephant numbers in sparsely populated Botswana are at an all-time high.
Elephants in east Africa are facing what Iain Douglas-Hamilton, zoologist and founder of Save the Elephants, calls “a crisis but not yet a catastrophe”. Elephants are “amazingly resilient creatures”, he says, and in regions where up to half of their deaths are caused by humans, the animals can still manage to maintain healthy communities. But when that number rises above 50 per cent – as has happened in much of Africa – reproduction rates can’t replace the losses, and the species spirals into decline.
The more successful countries shouldn’t rest on their laurels, Vira says. One way to tackle the problem in future is to predict the next poaching hotspots. The report’s authors have developed an index that includes factors such ascorruption and arms availability to predict at-risk reserves. As elephant numbers in central Africa decline, poaching is spreading, mainly to the south and east.
“Just looking at the diminishing numbers elsewhere in Africa and the economics of the trade, poaching has to eventually shift to southern Africa where 50 per cent of the elephants are today,” Vira says.
The hotspots for poaching are already shifting. Until a decade ago, the Selous Game Reserve in Tanzania boasted the largest concentration of pachyderms on Earth. But two-thirds of its elephants were killed between 2009 and 2013. The report alleges that poachers are being abetted by senior officials in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism.
The report endorses data-driven methods, like Goss’s live GPS mapping, to maximise the efficiency of gamekeeper patrols.
It also suggests that African governments should ramp up efforts to intercept ivory as it travels through the supply chain. Disrupting distribution networks can make the trade costlier and more risky for all those involved.
But even the best policing in Africa will fall short if demand for ivory remains high. A separate report will focus on the ivory trade in Asia. And Douglas-Hamilton is already working with China’s celebrities to convince young people that owning ivory trinkets isn’t cool. However, changing cultural values takes time – time Africa’s elephants may not have.
Africa: New Report Commissioned By Born Free Usa Confirms Organized Crime, Government Corruption, and Militia Links to Elephant Poaching and the Ivory Trade
21 April 2014
Washington, DC — “Ivory’s Curse: The Militarization and Professionalization of Poaching in Africa” reveals similarity between the illicit networks that enable terrorism, weapons, human trafficking, and ivory commercialization.
Today, Born Free USA and C4ADS released “Ivory’s Curse: The Militarization and Professionalization of Poaching in Africa,” one of the most shocking, rigorous and in-depth analyses of elephant poaching and the ivory trade to date. The report examines links to violent militias, organized crime, government corruption, and ivory trade to Asia. It further exposes the widespread transnational illicit participants deeply interwoven into the system that moves ivory. The full report is available at www.bornfreeusa.org/ivoryscurse.
According to Adam Roberts, CEO of Born Free USA, a global leader in wildlife conservation and animal welfare, “The elephant poaching crisis has reached historic levels and, shockingly, some elephant populations face extinction in my lifetime. Born Free USA sought to understand in a more robust way how destabilizing and corrupt individuals, as well as organized crime networks across Africa, place human security at risk and traffic in elephant ivory from slaughtered animals. Clearly, Ivory’s Curse shows that defense, military, national security, and foreign policy leaders must play a role in stopping the elephant massacre across the continent.”
Roberts explains, “Our findings shine a bright light on Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania, Sudan, and Kenya, where poachers move across borders with near impunity, slaughter elephants with complete disregard, and use the ivory to fund violent operations across the continent. Global leaders cannot stand by while the human tragedy and poaching crisis continue.”
Varun Vira, Senior Analyst at C4ADS and co-author of the report commissioned by Born Free USA, said, “Ivory is a conflict, crime, and corruption issue with severe human impact. It has been a conflict resource for decades, just like blood diamonds or coltan in Central Africa, only without the same level of global attention.”
One elephant yields about 20 pounds of ivory worth approximately $30,000. It is estimated that between 35,000 and 50,000 may have been killed in 2013. At this rate, the ivory trade could be worth one billion dollars annually, and will likely increase with the escalating retail price of ivory.
Ivory’s Curse provides detailed regional case studies on the ivory trade, including:
Vira explains, “Subsistence elephant poaching barely exists anymore. Impoverished locals may pull the triggers but they source to organized crime, which controls the scale of the poaching and nearly all profits. Saving both elephants and local communities will require moving from the bush into the world of global illicit networks in order to target transnational criminal profits. There are infinitely more young Africans willing to shoulder guns and kill elephants than there are containers full of ivory.”
Roberts concludes, “No one should ever buy ivory, but they should also contribute resources to organizations like Born Free USA that help equip rangers on the ground, and should pressure political leaders to take action to end the corruption. As long as supply chains remain unbroken and consumer demand remains insatiable, poachers will ply their deadly trade to supply the marketplace.”
eTN Global Travel Industry News
Mar 13, 2014
In his opening remarks, Hon. Moses Kalongashawa, Minister of Tourism and Culture of Malawi and Chair of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Ministers responsible for Tourism, detailed that the issue of poaching is of a huge concern and that Africa is losing wildlife at record rates each year to poachers and illegal trade. He further clarified that this is because of organized crime and syndicates in elephant and rhino poaching in Africa and that criminals now deploy advanced technologies ranging from night vision scopes, silenced weapons, darting equipment, and helicopters to carry out their missions.
In the following keynote address, Mr. Les Carlisle, Group Conservation Manager at &beyond, a conservation-lead safari lodge operator in Africa and Asia, reflected on the challenge of poaching from a private sector perspective. He highlighted that poaching presents a critical threat to wildlife-based tourism operations and that the private sector plays an important role in facing this serious challenge. He underlined the importance of working closely with local communities and ensuring long-term income and benefits, which are key in protecting wildlife and sustaining the parks. According to Mr. Carlisle, “Investment in local community development around our company’s wildlife areas is really producing dividends in the intelligence required for pro-active, anti-poaching actions.”
Mr. Sem Shikongo, Director of Tourism and Gaming at the Namibian Ministry of Environment and Tourism and Board Chairperson of the Regional Tourism Organization of Southern Africa (RETOSA), confirmed that community-based initiatives in Namibia are already suffering from the impact of poaching and that wildlife crime is depriving Africa of its tourism-based development options. Klemens Riha of GIZ explained an innovative approach of Germany’s contribution to help combat poaching and illegal trade of African wildlife. Presenting the collaboration of five German federal ministries under the project on “Combating Poaching and Illegal Wildlife Trade in Ivory/Rhino-horn” Mr. Riha clarified that effective cooperation is essential to combat such highly-organized crime. As GIZ’s Coordinator of the project, he added, “Poaching and illegal wildlife trade is not only affecting the conservation of the targeted species which are already endangered in many places, but is increasingly also threatening the livelihoods and security of the affected human populations.”
Asked about the most important measures to be implemented globally to combat the poaching crisis in Africa in the short and long term, Roland Melisch, Senior Director Africa and Europe at TRAFFIC, responded that meaningful measures need to be founded on three pillars, “The three essential elements to fight this crisis now are: ramping up anti-poaching, shutting down illegal trade routes with state-of-the-art technology along the whole trade chain, and supporting the efforts to reduce the demand for illegal African wildlife in Asia.” Organized smuggling syndicates can only be fought by deploying cutting-edge forensic technologies and by building the capacity of African and Asian law enforcement officers in the use of such modern technology – adapted to the needs on a country by country basis. Furthermore, the laudable governmental efforts of supply and demand reduction in Asia need to be strongly supported.
From the perspective of South African National Parks, Joep Stevens, General Manager, Strategic Tourism Services, stated that SANParks is getting smart in their fight against poaching. “We are now committing to technologically-advanced intensive protection zones (IPZs); pro-active, intelligence-led, anti-poaching solutions; and creative development of alternative economic choices for communities,” he told the audience.
It became clear that wildlife comprised under the “Big 5” is significantly important to the tourism industry in terms of product development as well as marketing. For the local population, photo-safaris and controlled trophy-hunting tourism adds to the acceptance of protected areas by providing sustainable economic incentives and certainly provides an alternative to poaching.
Participants concluded that enhanced collaboration of law enforcement staff at the national level and beyond is seen as a cornerstone to combat poaching and as a key to protect future sustainable development options for Africa’s rural areas.
This event was facilitated by Jennifer Seif, Executive Director at Fair Trade Tourism, and jointly organized by the Regional Tourism Organization of Southern Africa (RETOSA) in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, on behalf of and financed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).
Those who collaborate in this suffering by buying, wearing and displaying vanity products made from smuggled ivory should know their true cost and feel deeply ashamed.
The following article was written by Mark Deeble , a film maker living and working among elephant herds in the Tsavo National Park in northern Kenya with his partner Victoria Stone. It is an edited version of a longer article that originally appeared on Mark’s own blog. The content speaks for itself.
“Recently, we went on a recce for the film. We arrived at a distant waterhole – seemingly hewn out of ochre. That warm glow seemed reflected in the animals that, as we watched, came to drink. A magnificent bull elephant, encrusted with dry mud, drank calmly and deeply.
He might have travelled thirty miles to reach the water. He wasn’t going to hurry now. He’d drink a while and then rest in the shade, and then drink again as the shadows lengthened – or so we thought. What actually happened was that he drank deeply, stepped away, and then suddenly collapsed. His legs spasmed as he thrashed in the dust – and within minutes he was dead.
It was utterly shocking.
Our plans for the day changed rapidly after that. A call to a Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) vet resulted in an impromptu post-mortem beside the waterhole. He removed the head of a poisoned arrow embedded in the bull’s flank, and released over 100 litres of pus from the hidden infection – the result of the bull’s encounter with a poacher months before.
There are many different ways to kill an elephant. Across Africa, elephants have been targeted with rocket-propelled grenades, helicopter gunships, automatic rifles, poisoned arrows, wire snares, spears, poisoned foot-spikes, poisoned food, and poisoned salt-licks and waterholes.
In Tsavo the poachers’ method of choice is the AK 47. It can bring down an elephant quickly, and a gang of poachers can target whole elephant families. The huge number of illegal weapons in Somalia and its porous border with Kenya means that sourcing weapons is easy.
The problem for the poacher is that the sound of a gunshot can carry for miles. Almost every Kenyan now has a mobile phone and a call to KWS can result in an aircraft on site in under an hour. The influx of cheap Chinese motorbikes into Kenya in recent years has meant that poachers, weapons and ivory can be moved around more quickly and easily than in the past. Still, poachers have to work fast to chop the tusks out, cover their tracks and get away before rangers arrive on the scene.
The alternative is poaching with bows and poisoned arrows and we are seeing many more elephants now with festering arrow wounds. Bow-hunting sounds clean and selective. The reality is quite different. This isn’t the extraordinary long-bow style of hunting that powerful Waliangulu hunters traditionally used, which earned the admiration of chief Park Warden David Sheldrick over sixty years ago and could, reportedly, fell an elephant from 200 paces.
Today’s bow hunting poacher shoots from a blind by a waterhole. He fires an arrow, smeared with poison, into the flank of the elephant in the hope that it can pierce the body cavity. If it does, and the poacher is lucky, the elephant might die in an hour or two; if not, he might have to follow the elephant for days before it collapses.
Often the arrow head fails to penetrate the body cavity properly, and localized infection produces a grapefruit-sized boil. It doesn’t mean that the poison won’t eventually kill the elephant, but it will be a slow and lingering death.
I recently spent a month at a waterhole, filming the herds as they came to drink. On one occasion a herd of eleven big bulls came in that I hadn’t seen before. They were nervous and aggressive. Almost all of them had wounds on their flanks – some old, but some fresh and oozing pus.
On two bulls I could see broken shafts protruding where the elephant had tried to pull out the arrow. One bull carried five wounds. It was too late in the day for the vet to come and assess them. The next day, the bulls did not appear and we never saw them again. It felt like they were on the run – but where they were going, we’ll never know.
When I think about the death of that magnificent bull at the waterhole, what stays with me after the shocking thump of his body hitting the ground, was the extraordinary quiet that descended. Eland and hartebeest raised their heads, and guinea fowl froze. Even the pond-skaters stilled a while on the surface of the water.
In those few seconds it felt like we all were united in acknowledging his passing. With the death of such a magnificent animal, the world seemed a poorer and emptier place.”
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang H. Thome, eTN Africa
Those facts are that wherever Chinese companies are engaged in infrastructure projects or in mining in Africa, poaching in the vicinity of their labor camps has gone up. Fact is that over 90 percent of those arrested at African airports, found with blood ivory in their possession, are Chinese citizens. Fact is that for years have Chinese authorities happily sat on the fence and let their citizens fuel the elephant slaughter by turning a blind eye on the illegal trade. Fact is that most blood ivory cargos intercepted were destined for China.
True enough, there has been a little movement of late, as Chinese authorities have had to face up to growing global opposition in regard of the illegal ivory trade, but so far little more than cosmetic change has taken place.
The destruction recently of 6 tons of ivory cannot be described as anything else but a token show and Africa’s conservation fraternity demands a lot more positive action, such as banning trade and possession in China of blood ivory altogether and enforce strengthened laws with vigor, just the same as poachers of their prized Panda bears, once convicted in court, face the death penalty.
Conservationists also rejected the notion that they were intent to spoil China’s ‘good name’ or interfere with the business of Chinese companies in Africa, but insisted that the links between the presence of Chinese companies in Africa and the relevant time frames of their arrival vis-a-vis the increase in poaching, are hard to ignore.
“Instead of mouthing off the Chinese should show cause to support conservation in Africa. For too long they ignored our complaints and what their citizens do in Africa. They thought they can get away with it but when they realized that this is biting them in the a** they slowly and apparently very grudgingly started to face up to the music. Their government inaction made them complicit in the illegal trade, turning a blind eye on the fact how many Chinese were arrested with blood ivory, how many shipments were intercepted enroute to or at the borders with China speak louder than their feeble utterances,” said a source from Arusha when discussing the response by Chinese authorities made through the Director General for African Affairs in the Chinese foreign ministry.
Others though cautiously welcomed Chinas’ apparent change in position and suggested the Chinese need more “encouragement” now than just blunt opposition after losing too much of their proverbial “face” already over their alleged complicity in the mass slaughter of African elephants.
In Tanzania in particular but across the elephant range states have elephant herds been decimated in recent years, as the growing wealth in China fueled a relentlessly expanding demand for ivory trinkets, which supposedly improved social standing and was used to display newly found riches to their peers. It is there, on the demand side, where Chinese government’s actions in strengthening laws and strictly enforcing existing laws is crucially important as only lesser demand will curb poaching from its present levels.
SHANGHAI CUSTOMS CRACKS UP LARGEST IVORY SMUGGLING CASE IN ITS IMMIGRATION CHANNELS SINCE THE AIRPORT WAS CONSTRUCTED.
The original article can be found in the following link: http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2014/02-12/5830206.shtml
12/02/2014. Shanghai Customs gather to build the largest haul ever in Shanghai Pudong International Airport in an immigration channel ivory smuggling case. The original whole tusks seized were eight whole tooth roots, truncated African elephant ivory and nearly 200 segmented ivory products, a total weight of 95.82 kg, and arrested 2 suspects of Chinese nationality. Photo issued by China news agency photographer Cheng Nan.
On the 12th of February, the Shanghai Customs came together to build the largest ivory haul ever to be done from the tourist ivory smuggling channels. A total of 8 whole ivory tusks were seized, truncated African ivory and nearly 200 segmented ivory products, with a total weight of 95.82kg, whereby 2 suspects, both of Chinese origin were arrested.
According to reports, the suspects Yang and his accomplice Zhu had access to ivory in Africa at low costs and planned to bring the ivory to China so as to reap high profits. An ivory tusk in Africa is less than 40,000 yuan (Ksh.600,000) but when it gets to China, it goes for a price of 250,000 yuan (Ksh.3.75 million) and above. A kilogram of raw ivory goes at the rate of 40,000 yuan (Ksh.600,000) in China. Although Yang knew the illegal aspect of the trade, he went on and did it as he was looking at the possibility of the profit that he would get if luck was on his side.
After Yang arrived at the Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Customs officials implemented a pre-flight passenger inspection and found 4 suitcases with clear ivory like shadows. The officials immediately closed up the suitcases and got the owners’ information from the tags.
20 minutes later, Yang pushed the luggage towards customs without using the custom declaration channels. The customs officials thus started to conduct a check on the luggage, in which they found newspapers filled to the brim of the luggage wrapping raw ivory and ivory products. The sight of what was inside the bags surprised the people at the scene. Yang then confessed to his crime.
According to the customs anti-smuggling police, this is the largest ivory haul ever made at the Shanghai Pudong International Airport since it was built.
Ivory as well as the ivory products are listed in Appendix 1 of the CITES. According to the convention, China’s Customs law and the Wildlife Protection Law, irrespective of the method of carrying and size of the ivory, exportation and importation of ivory has been banned. (End)
Translated by Chris Kiarie
PHOTO | AFP KWS officer arranging some of 1,099 pieces of ivory tusks a the port of Mombasa August 21, 2013. The United States clamped down on the domestic trade of elephant ivory Tuesday as part of a new drive to help African countries stem the threat to wildlife from poachers.
The United States clamped down on the domestic trade of elephant ivory Tuesday as part of a new drive to help African countries stem the threat to wildlife from poachers.
The White House administrative action bans all commercial imports of African elephant ivory, including antiques, as well as all commercial exports — except for bona fide antiques and certain other items.
The outlawed ivory trade is mostly fuelled by demand in Asia and the Middle East, where elephant tusks and rhino horns are used in traditional medicine and to make ornaments.
Poaching has risen sharply in Africa in recent years where, besides targeting rhinos, gangs eyeing lucrative international markets have slaughtered whole herds of elephants for their tusks.
“This ban is the best way to help ensure that US markets do not contribute to the further decline of African elephants in the wild,” the White House said in a statement.
It said federal departments and agencies would immediately take actions to, among other things, clarify what constitutes an antique.
“To qualify as an antique, an item must be more than 100 years old and meet other requirements under the Endangered Species Act.”
“The onus will now fall on the importer, exporter, or seller to demonstrate that an item meets these criteria.”
Other measures include limiting to two the number of African elephant sport-hunted trophies that can be imported by an individual each year.
The crackdown on ivory is a key aspect of a new national strategy for combating wildlife trafficking, also unveiled Tuesday, that has been in the works for some time.
SIGNED AN ORDER
During a trip to Tanzania last year, President Barack Obama signed an executive order for a $10 million program to reduce the practice in Africa.
That led to the setting up of a task force to develop the strategy to crack down on the lucrative trade — estimated to be worth between $7 and $10 billion a year.
“The United States will continue to lead global efforts to protect the world’s iconic animals and preserve our planet’s natural beauty for future generations,” the White House said.
America is one of the world’s largest markets for wildlife products, both legal and illegal, according to senior administration officials.
“Much of the trafficking in ivory and other wildlife products either passes through or ends up in the United States and so we are committed to putting an end to the illegal trade in elephant ivory and also other wildlife products,” one official told reporters on a conference all.
Another said that, under the ban, it would be legal to own items made from ivory and gift these to your children or grandchildren — but it would not be legal to sell them.
“We are facing a situation where rhino horn is worth more than its weight in gold. Elephant ivory is going for as much as $1,500 a pound,” the official said.
“So we believe that an outright ban on domestic trade in ivory and rhino horn is appropriate because it will help us be more effective in law enforcement and it will demonstrate a US leadership worldwide.”
“We can’t ask other consumer nations to crack down on their domestic trade and markets unless we’re prepared to do the same here at home.”
The official said there are less than half a million elephants on the African continent today and “estimates are that we are losing as many as 35,000 elephants per year.”
The World Wildlife Fund applauded what it called an ambitious set of actions.
“Today marks a significant milestone in the global fight against wildlife crime,” said the group’s US president and chief executive, Carter Roberts.
The article above can be found in the following link: http://www.nation.co.ke/news/US-bans-commercial-ivory-trade/-/1056/2203064/-/1v7pliz/-/index.html